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The Orion Nebula

The Orion Nebula is one of the brightest nebulae in the night sky and is visible to the naked eye. This magnitude 4 interstellar cloud of ionized atomic hydrogen contains a young open cluster of four primary stars known as the Trapezium.

The M42 nebula is part of a much larger nebula system known as the Orion Molecular Complex, which extends throughout the Orion constellation including objects such as the Horsehead Nebula, M78, and Barnard’s Loop.

The Orion Nebula itself extends across a 1° region of the night sky. It includes associations of stars, ionized gas, and areas of reflection nebulae. When photographing the Orion Nebula, it is common to include the nearby Running Man Nebula (NGC 1977) in the same frame as shown below.

Orion Nebula

The Orion Nebula. William Optics RedCat 71, ZWO ASI2400MC Pro, Sky-Watcher EQ6-R Pro. (6 Hours Total Exposure).

The mighty Orion Nebula is arguably the most spectacular deep-sky object in the night sky. I sincerely hope that you have the privilege of observing M42 (Messier 42) through a telescope at some point during your life. You will never forget it.

Unlike many of the dim nebulae regions in the sky, this one is bright and rewarding when observed through the telescope eyepiece or binoculars. The bright core of the nebula is easy to spot, even from a heavily light-polluted location. 

In terms of astrophotography, it is one of the most gratifying deep-sky objects you could ever photograph through a telescope. The rich glowing emission gas and reflected starlight of the Orion Nebula embody the breathtaking beauty of our Universe.

Orion nebula and horsehead nebula

The Orion Nebula and Horsehead Nebula region photographed in a single frame.

The Orion Nebula

The Orion Nebula is so bright, that it is possible to observe it with the naked eye. With an apparent magnitude of +4, this glowing emission nebula/reflection nebula can even be enjoyed from locations with moderate light pollution.

You’ll find Messier 42 in the “Sword” of the Orion constellation, which are the 3 stars located south of Orion’s Belt. It may look like just another “star” at first, but a closer look (even without the aid of binoculars) will reveal a fuzzy patch.

This diffuse nebula is estimated to be about 24 light-years across and is the closest region of active star formation to Earth.

In the following video from NASA, you will take a flight through the Orion Nebula in visible and infrared light. By combining the infrared capabilities of the Spitzer space telescope with Hubble’s visible light, we can enjoy a multi-wavelength visualisation of the Orion Nebula. 

Flight Through the Orion Nebula in Visible and Infrared Light. (NASA Video).

Orion astrophotography

Astrophotography Images I’ve captured over the years of the Orion Nebula

Orion Nebula Details:

  • Object Type: Reflection Nebula/Emission Nebula
  • Constellation: Orion
  • Distance: 1,344 light-years
  • Apparent magnitude: +4.0
  • Apparent dimensions: 65×60 arcmins
  • Designations: NGC 1976, M42

How to Find the Orion Nebula

Orion is one of the easiest constellations to identify in the night sky. “The Hunter” formation of stars is unmistakable, even from the city. Orion’s Belt is the most striking feature of the formation, 3 bright stars in a row that create an imperfect line. The intensely red star at the upper left of Orion should also stand out. Betelgeuse is a red supergiant, and one of the largest stars visible to the naked eye.

On the bottom right of this star formation, is yet another extremely bright star, but this one shines blue-white. Rigel is the brightest star in the Orion constellation, and approximately 40,000 times brighter than our sun. The star factory affectionately known as the Orion Nebula can be found North of Rigel, in Orion’s Sword. Have a look at the star chart below for reference.

Orion Nebula Star Map

Star Map showing the Location of the Orion Nebula – FreeStarCharts.com

The seven primary stars that make up the distinctive hourglass-shaped asterism of Orion the Hunter are Rigel, Betelgeuse, Bellatrix, Saiph, Alnitak, Alnilam, and Mintaka. Nearby Canis Major is said to be Orion’s faithful dog. The brightest star in Earth’s night sky, Sirius, represents the nose of the dog.

Through a Telescope or Binoculars

If you’re lucky enough to own a telescope, aim it below the 3 belt stars of Orion towards his sword. Use your telescope’s finder scope to identify the fuzzy patch that sits between the three stars of Orion’s sword, and then hop back on the eyepiece for a wondrous sight. With enough aperture and good seeing, you should be able to spot out the Trapezium near the core of Orion. Look for a tightly packed collection of 4 stars.

Unlike many of the faint deep sky nebulae in the night sky, the bright Orion Nebula offers an impressive view for backyard stargazers in the city. I often take a look at M42 using a pair of 15 x 75 binoculars. I highly suggest observing Orion this way if you haven’t before, as it creates a real-time observing experience that gives you a “lost in space” feeling.

where is the orion nebula

When to See The Orion Nebula

From the Northern Hemisphere, Orion is due South and highest in the night sky at about midnight in the month of December. As the winter months pass, Orion will rise about 2 hours earlier each month. January and February are great months for adding the Orion nebula to your astrophotography target list.

Vibrant bright blues and pinks are revealed through long exposure photography and create a masterpiece of interstellar gas and dust.

The Orion Nebula was the first deep sky object I ever witnessed in color through photography. I used a point-and-shoot digital camera to image through the eyepiece of my Orion Skyquest Dobsonian back in 2010.

The result was a blurry smudge of purple light, and that was enough to spark my interest to the level it’s at today. My early experiences photographing the Orion Nebula were the catalyst for a future lifelong obsession with astrophotography, and the night sky itself.

Through binoculars, a camera lens, or a telescope – the glowing molecular cloud known as the Orion Nebula never disappoints.

Orion constellation

Astrophotography Tips

Over the years, I have photographed Orion using countless cameras, telescopes, and camera lenses. Since 2010, I have dedicated some time to photographing the Orion Nebula (and Constellation) when the Hunter returns in the fall.

The graphic below shows my personal astrophotography progress on the Orion Nebula over the years. The amount of overall exposure time and the types of filters that were used can change the type of image you create dramatically. In the world of astrophotography, the more signal (light) you can collect, the better.

An equatorial tracking mount and a telescope (or telephoto lens) are required for a deep view of the Orion Nebula, but even short untracked shots will begin to show color. For tips on how you can begin to enjoy astrophotography with an entry-level camera right away, see: 7 Astrophotography Tips and Camera Settings.

Orion Nebula comparison

My astrophotography progress on the Orion Nebula over time. 

A Perfect Beginner Target

This celestial masterpiece is the perfect target for beginners to try using a DSLR camera and telescope. The bright, impressive details are quite evident in short, unguided exposures. As you learn how to better capture and process your astrophotography images, your image of M42 will become more and more beautiful.

My first images of the Orion Nebula did not look like the versions you see below. I had to learn the art of capturing and processing deep-sky astrophotography images, and it took time.

Using the right camera filter can increase your chances of success. From my Bortle Scale Class 8 backyard, I rely on light pollution filters to help me capture natural-looking images under an urban sky.

For example, the image on the right was captured using a small refractor telescope and a stock DSLR camera. A broadband light pollution filter (Optolong L-Pro) was used to reduce the glow of my city sky while allowing the natural colors of this object and stars to shine through.

Orion Nebula

 

The image on the left includes narrowband hydrogen-alpha data, using a specialized filter. The original true-color data was combined with greyscale images shot using a narrowband h-alpha filter to produce a hybrid image that shows off the intense glowing hydrogen gas in the Orion Nebula and surrounding area.

Amateur photographers will often include the Running Man Nebula (NGC 1977) in the image as I have done in the past. For reference, a focal length of 400-600mm will offer the most impactful field of view for a large nebula like Messier 42.

Using a free plate-solving tool like Astrometry.net is a great way to show you all of the annotated objects inside an astrophotography image of the Orion Nebula. The primary cataloged objects in my image of the Orion Nebula included M42, M43, NGC 1977, NGC 1980, and NGC 1981.

Camera Settings and Advice

A typical imaging session on M42 and the surrounding area will involve photographing several long-exposure images that can later be registered and stacked to produce a final image with a healthy signal-to-noise ratio. I use a free software called DeepSkyStacker to pre-process all of my astrophotography images.

Here are some recommended DSLR camera settings for the Orion Nebula through a telescope on a tracking mount:

  • Mode: Manual (Bulb)
  • ISO: 800-1600
  • Exposure: 2-3 Minutes
  • White Balance: Daylight

Orion from the backyard

My view of Orion from a city backyard

If you are using a camera lens, set the lens’ f-ratio low (F/4 or below). The sharpness of the stars in your image will vary lens by lens, but in general, you want the lens to gather as much light as possible in a single shot. Fast lenses such as F/1.8 may benefit from stopping down to F/2.8 or F/3.2 for easier focus and a sharper image.

The bright core of the Orion Nebula may clip the highlight data in your image in exposures as short as 15-seconds. To create images of the Orion Nebula with a high dynamic range (HDR), photographers often capture short exposures of 5-10 seconds to capture the fine details near the Trapezium. These details can then be blended into the long exposure shots for a dramatic image.

Image Processing

Image processing is a completely different aspect of astrophotography from image acquisition. The Orion Nebula is an excellent test subject to practice your image processing skills on. For a detailed step-by-step image processing tutorial, you can follow along with the steps I take in Adobe Photoshop in the following post:

Deep Sky Image Processing Tutorial – Orion Nebula

image processing tutorial

I have also created another tutorial that explains how to fix the bright core of Orion in Adobe Photoshop. To accomplish this, you can blend in a photo of the Orion Nebula captured using a shorter exposure length. By blending a shorter exposure image of the bright core, you can create an HDR version of Orion with more detail overall. 

Which Telescope to Use?

The size of the Orion Nebula is well suited for many focal lengths, be it a telephoto lens or astrophotography telescope. The wide field of view offered by a compact refractor telescope will allow you to capture the entire M42 nebula, along with M43, NGC 1977, and many more interesting cataloged objects in this area.

For an example of the types of telescopes I have used to photograph this object from my backyard, have a look at my extensive list of best astrophotography telescopes. Because this object is so bright, almost any telescope is capable of delivering impressive views of Orion.

A mid-range telescope like the Explore Scientific ED102 refractor is a superb choice for deep-sky imaging. This telescope is responsible for many of the images in my personal photo gallery. An apochromatic refractor offers many advantages when photographing a target like M42 such as color correction, contrast, and clarity.

redcat 71 telescope

The telescope used for my latest image of Orion (William Optics RedCat 71).

You can use a software tool like Stellarium, or your favorite stargazing app to help you plan for a night of astrophotography or observing. Because Orion is in the northern hemisphere sky in the winter, I have to plan my imaging sessions well in advance to be ready for a rare clear night. 

The best time to photograph Orion through your telescope is during the new moon phase, as this will allow you to capture images without a bright moon interfering. Is also wise to photograph this object (or any deep-sky object) on a night with great seeing conditions, especially when using longer focal lengths.

The images you take are often clearest when the constellation is highest in apparent altitude in the sky because there is less atmospheric disturbance in the air. The apparent altitude in the sky that Orion will reach depends on your geographical location, and the time of year. 

Video

In the video, I collect light frames on this deep-sky object using a camera and telescope from my backyard. A typical imaging session on M42 involves shooting anywhere between 30-100 images on a single night.

Click here for a current list of the astrophotography equipment I use in the backyard.

Wide Angle Camera Lens

In a post I made about using a camera lens for astrophotography, I collected light on Messier 42 and the surrounding area. This included interesting deep-sky objects like the Horsehead Nebula, Flame Nebula, and Barnard’s Loop.

Even at this focal length (105mm), the Orion Nebula is an incredible sight. The photo below was captured using a Canon Rebel DSLR on an iOptron SkyTracker Pro camera mount, a popular star tracker for amateur astrophotographers.

Orion's Belt

Several exposures in true-color RGB were stacked together to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the final image. Narrowband H-Alpha data was also added to bring increase the intense glowing gas from these nebulae even more.

Images of the Orion Nebula using various astrophotography equipment:

Orion Nebula and Running Man Nebula using a Canon EF 300mm F/4L Lens

Helpful Resources:

 

 

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